Hand Crafted Copper Enamel Blue and White Cup with Flower and bird motif
Item#: E 1002
Material: Copper, enamel
Origin: China
Circa: 19th Century
Mark underneath: Made in "乾隆年制". ( Qianlong in Qing Dynasty)
Size: 3 1/2"Dia. x 2" H
Condition: Mint
Price: SOLD

The cup has an everted mouth and a ring foot. The body of the cup is made of copper.  The base of the vessel is colored white and has
blue inscription written in the formal style of Chinese characters. The inscription tells us that this cup was made during the Qianlong
period.

The Origin of  Enamel
Lots of missionaries were sent to China from Portugal, Holland and England since the 16th century, and these missionaries flooded
into China since the ban on maritime trade was lifted in the 22nd year of Kangxi regin.  They brought some precious objects taken from
their motherland to Chinese Emperors, including telescope, western clocks and watches, western drawings, snuffboxes, western
wines, enamel and so on.  Showing great interests in the French enamel, Kangxi was so fascinated by European enamel drawing that
he introduced the art into the imperial factory in the court. Emperor Kangxi also had the missionaries found workers from Paris
specialized in painting enamel. Combining the western drawing technique with the Chinese tradition, the enamel was painted on the
base of the porcelain, representing the merge of Chinese and western arts.

Canton Enamel is Chinese painted enamel, named for the principal place of its manufacture. Painted-enamel techniques were
originally developed in Limoges, France in the 15th century. These techniques were introduced into China in the 18th century, probably
by French missionaries. This is reflected in the translation of the Chinese term for painted enamels, “foreign porcelain.” A metal object,
usually copper but sometimes silver or gold, is covered with a background layer of enamel (often white), is fired, and then is painted with
coloured enamels much as are porcelains. The finished piece is then fired again. 广东画珐琅是中国手工绘的画珐琅生产地。手工珐琅工
艺源之于在15世纪法国里摩日城市。十八世纪,可能是由法国传道士引进到中国。中国手工珐琅彩‘外销瓷’。金属器物,通常是铜,但是有时
候也有银或金上珐琅釉(经常是白色的),经过火烧,然后上彩色釉就象瓷器。然后再烧成品。

A thriving industry for the manufacture and export of Canton enamels grew up in the 18th century. More refined enamels made in the
emperor’s workshops and in private shops in Peking also became popular export items. Most of the Canton enamels used the famille
rose colours peculiar to Europe. 18世纪广东画珐琅器的制造和出口工业繁荣。精品画珐琅制品都是宫廷造办处的,北京民间的出口画珐琅
也很有名。广东大多数画珐琅用的是欧洲的粉彩。